The **Solvay Conferences** have been devoted to outstanding preeminent open problems in both physics and chemistry. The Solvay Conference, founded by the Belgian industrialist Ernest Solvay in 1912, was considered a turning point in the world of physics. Located in Brussels, the conferences were devoted to outstanding preeminent open problems in both physics and chemistry.

The most famous conference was the October 1927 Fifth Solvay International Conference on **Electrons and Photons**, where the world’s most notable physicists met to discuss the newly formulated quantum theory. The leading figures were ** Albert Einstein** and

*Niels Bohr.* It was one of the most famous scientific meetings in all of history. Seventeen of the twenty-nine attendees had either received or would receive Nobel prizes. But what made the conference so memorable was a disagreement — a disagreement between two of the titans of physics: * Niels Bohr *and

**.**

*Albert Einstein*Einstein, disenchanted with Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, remarked “God does not play dice”, to which Bohr replied, “Einstein, stop telling God what to do”.

Solvay Conference on quantum mechanics at the Institute International de Physique Solvay, Brussels, Belgium, in 1927

**Scientists attending the Solvay Conference, 1927:-**

**Scientists attending the Solvay Conference, 1927:-****Front****:**Irving Langmuir, Max Planck, Marie Curie, Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein, Paul Langevin, Charles-Eugène Guye, CTR Wilson, Owen Richardson.

**Middle****:**Peter Debye, Martin Knudsen, William Lawrence Bragg, Hendrik Anthony Kramers, Paul Dirac, Arthur Compton, Louis de Broglie, Max Born, Niels Bohr.

**Back****:**Auguste Piccard, Émile Henriot, Paul Ehrenfest, Édouard Herzen, Théophile de Donder, Erwin Schrödinger, JE Verschaffelt, Wolfgang Pauli, Werner Heisenberg, Ralph Fowler, Léon Brillouin.

__Scientist’s achievements__:-

__Scientist’s achievements__He was an American chemist and physicist. His most noted publication was the famous 1919 article “The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules”.**Irving Langmuir:-**

He originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. He proposed that exchanges of energy only occur in discrete lumps, which he dubbed quanta.**Max Planck:-**

She was the first woman to earn a Nobel prize and the first person to earn two. In 1898, she isolated two new elements (polonium and radium) by tracking their ionizing radiation, using the electrometer of Jacques and Pierre Curie.**Marie Curie:-**

He discovered and gave a theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect. He also derived the transformation equations subsequently used by Albert Einstein to describe space and time.**Hendrik Lorentz:-**

He developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics). He is best known in popular culture for his mass-energy equivalence formula (which has been dubbed “the world’s most famous equation”). He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics “for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect”.**Albert Einstein:-**

He**Paul Langevin:-**

He was a professor of Physics at the University of Geneva. For Guye, any phenomenon could only exist at certain observation scales.**Charles-Eugène Guye:-**

He reproduced cloud formation in a box. Ultimately, in 1911, supersaturated dust-free ion-free air was seen to condense along the tracks of ionizing particles. The Wilson cloud chamber detector was born.**Charles Thomson Rees Wilson:-**

He won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1928 for his work on thermionic emission, which led to Richardson’s Law.**Sir Owen Willans Richardson:-**

He pioneered the use of dipole moments for asymmetrical molecules and extended Einstein’s theory of specific heat to low temperatures by including low-energy phonons.**Peter Debye:-**

He revived Maxwell’s kinetic theory of gases, especially at low pressure: Knudsen flow, Knudsen number, etc.**Martin Knudsen:-**

He was awarded the Nobel prize for physics jointly with his father Sir William Henry Bragg for their work on the analysis of the structure of crystals using X-ray diffraction.**William Lawrence Bragg:-**

He was the first foreign scholar to seek out Niels Bohr. He became his assistant and helped develop what became known as Bohr’s Institute, where he worked on dispersion theory.**Hendrik Kramers:-**

He came up with the formalism on which quantum mechanics is now based. In 1928, he discovered a relativistic wave function for the electron which predicted the existence of antimatter, before it was actually observed.**Paul Dirac:-**

He figured that X-rays collide with electrons as if they were relativistic particles, so their frequency shifts according to the angle of deflection (Compton scattering).**Arthur Holly Compton:-**

He discovered that any particle has wavelike properties, with a wavelength inversely proportional to its momentum (this helps justify Schrödinger’s equation).**Louis de Broglie:-**

’s:- He probabilistic interpretation of Schrödinger’s wave function ended determinism in physics but provided a firm ground for quantum theory.__Max Born__

started the quantum revolution with a model where the orbital angular momentum of an electron only has discrete values. He spearheaded the Copenhagen Interpretation which holds that quantum phenomena are inherently probabilistic.**Niels Bohr:- He**

He designed ships to explore the upper stratosphere and the deep seas.**Auguste Piccard:-**

:- He detected the natural radioactivity of potassium and rubidium. He made ultracentrifuges possible and pioneered the electron microscope.__Emile Henriot__

He**Paul Ehrenfest:-**

He is one of only 7 people who participated in the two Solvay conferences of 1911 and 1927. He played a leading role in the development of physics and chemistry during the twentieth century.**Edouard Herzen:-**

He**Théophile de Donder:-**

He**Erwin Schrödinger:-**

, the Flemish physicist, got his doctorate under Kamerlingh Onnes in 1899.__Jules Emile Verschaffelt__

He formulated the exclusion principle which explains the entire table of elements. Pauli’s sharp tongue was legendary; he once said about a bad paper: “This isn’t right; this isn’t even wrong.”**Wolfgang Pauli:-**

He replaced Bohr’s semi-classical orbits by a new quantum logic which became known as matrix mechanics (with the help of Born and Jordan). The relevant noncommutativity entails Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.**Werner Heisenberg:-**

He supervised 15 FRS and 3 Nobel laureates. In 1923, he introduced Dirac to quantum theory.**Sir Ralph Howard Fowler:-**

He practically invented solid state physics (Brillouin zones) and helped develop the technology that became the computers we use today.**Léon Nicolas Brillouin:-**

**Interesting Fact**:-

**Marie**

**Curie**, the only woman in attendees, was also the only one among them to win a Nobel Prize in two separate disciplines: chemistry and physics.

Madame Curie is my inspiration.

Thank you for the informative and thoughtful blog post. 😁👍

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